History of the Basque people It is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe, specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were already mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny , including the Vascones , the Aquitani and others. There is enough evidence that they already spoke Basque in that time see: In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia , being united under the Castilian noblesse. After Muslim invasions and Frankish expansion under Charlemagne , the territory was fragmented and eventually the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Pamplona arose as the main states with Basque population in the ninth century. This state, later known as Navarre , experienced feudalization and was subjected to the influences of its vaster Aragonese , Castilian and French neighbours, with Castile annexing parts of it in the eleventh and twelfth century and from to The remainder of Navarre would end up being united to France. Nevertheless the Basque provinces enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution in the North and the mainly religious wars named Carlist Wars in the South trying to establish a Catholic theocratic monarchy. Since then, despite the current self-governing status of the Basque Country, as settled by the Spanish Constitution, elements of Basque society are still attempting to establish a completely separate State see Basque nationalism , sometimes by violent means.
Interactive guide to Basque nationalism
The Basque Country is at the epicenter of arguably the most important cave complex in Europe, an area framed by the world famous caves of Lascaux , Dordogne in southwestern France and Altamira , Cantabria, in northern Spain. Their designation as World Heritage Sites implied official international recognition for the cultural value of the cave art discovered in the three sites. In order to preserve the cave art in these locations, they are, naturally, closed to the public.
However, we can still get a flavor of what treasures lie deep within their walls. And when it comes to Ekain, as well as the option of a virtual visit click here to start , those of you lucky enough to actually set foot in the Basque Country congratulations by the way, it will be an unforgettable experience! Click here to visit the Ekainberri website.
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In Spain we are known for our diversity and our joy for life, however, it is not a well known factor that we like to enjoy life in many different ways. This is reflective of customs like the running of the bulls one week of the year in the northern central town of Pamplona , and bull fighting mostly celebrated in Southern Spain. This also has a lot to do with the way we express ourselves; thus we have several languages, all of them official, which demonstrate our diversity and our rich heritage; in case that you were not aware of this, Spanish’s real name is Castillian, and therefore, when referring to the other languages you will read about Castillian.
We have developed this page to introduce them to you: See a map of the Spanish regions Euskera El Euskera, or the Basque language, is spoken in the northern central area of Spain where the Pyrennes meet the Cantabrian Sea and it is nowadays written with Latin alphabet. The origin of the Basque is not really traceable and there have been a number of hypotheses.
It has been suggested that the ancestors of the Basques’ language was introduced into this part of Europe by immigrants from Asia Minor at the beginning of the Bronze Age circa BC.
Behind the Name: Basque Submitted Names
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Studied igneous sill caused strong thermal impact on host organic-rich mudstones. Abstract Recent studies have documented the expulsion of methane and oil to the Albian paleoseabed in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. They interpret that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were triggered by seismically recorded magmatic intrusions which metamorphosed organic-rich host sediments.
An outcrop within the basin was selected to investigate organic matter evolution and sediment degassing due to an igneous body. Geochemical profiles of TOC, S1, S2, HI and PC show a gradual decrease toward the sill indicating organic carbon loss and increase in the thermal maturity of the organic matter in the same direction. Concordantly, gas chromatograms show a loss of n-alkanes and a predominance of the shorter chain length homologues adjacent to the sill.
Organic carbon loss in the aureole was the result of carbon devolatilization and formation of CO2 and CH4 gases. The newly formed CO2 reacted with pore waters to precipitate 13C depleted carbonate minerals in the aureole and in sill fractures. CH4 escaped from the aureole via hydrofractures to the paleoseabed, where methane-derived authigenic carbonates were formed.
In addition to one of the highest concentrations of Master Sommeliers outside of San Francisco, Vegas celebrates wine on its own exuberant terms: And while insiders buzz about downtown Las Vegas for its up-and-coming eateries, visits are still firmly centered on the neon-lit Strip, a veritable gold mine for wine lovers.
To catch a show while dining, reserve the kitchen table at Delmonico Steakhouse and watch the back-of-the-house action through glass windows. Off-menu dishes are available, paired with wines from a 2, label list overseen by Master Sommelier Kevin Vogt.
The Basque language, Euskara, is a pre-Indo-European language of prehistoric origin, thus the rare and unusual sounding indigenous grapes, Hondarrabi Zuri(white), Hondarrabi Beltza(red), and Izkiriota. The locals take great pride in the wines they make and much of the wine is made for local indulgence.
There are about 70 etchings in total dating from the Upper Paleolithic era that were previously unknown to modern researchers, most likely due to their remote location, approximately 1, feet deep, inside the cave system. Check out a report on the findings here. See also a detailed first-hand report on the discovery in Spanish here.
The Atxurra cave was first discovered in and was excavated between and by Jose Miguel de Barandiaran, still considered to be the greatest Basque ethnographer of all time. Basque Prehistory and Ethnography. It was almost made extinct in the s because wild cattle were slaughtered during construction of the Larrun train. Instead, we have disempowered the authorities.
Basque Prehistory and Ethnography: They did not allow anyone to enter their dwelling place. In certain cases they kidnap young people who have been the target of some curse and hold them captive in their underground dens. It is useful to recall that the same figures that are situated by Basque mythology in caverns also appear painted or engraved by men of the Magdalenian period and earlier on the walls of some of the caves of our country.
In short, these are animals that have been extremely important in Basque culture for thousands of years.
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Over the last 40 years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on early industrial organizations, a field of study that has come to be known as Archaeotechnology. Archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of ancient technologies in a cultural context and have drawn on the laboratory analyses developed by materials scientists as one portion of their interpretive program.
Corroded iron from the Java Sea Wreck. Chinese Warring States arrowhead dating to about — B. A wrought-iron Roman cleaver.
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Basque region of Spain
Tue, 06 Mar Comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has found that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula some 7, years ago, the Genographic Project announced today. The Genographic Project seeks to chart new knowledge about the migratory history of the human species and answer age-old questions surrounding the genetic diversity of humanity. At the core of the project is a global consortium of 11 regional scientific teams following an ethical and scientific framework and who are responsible for sample collection and analysis in their respective regions.
We found that Basques share common genetic features with other European populations, but at the same time present some autochthonous local lineages that make them unique,” said Quintana-Murci. Genographic Project researchers studied mitochondrial DNA mtDNA , which has been widely applied to the study of human history and is perhaps best known as the tool used to reveal ‘Mitchondrial Eve,’ the female common ancestor of all modern humans who lived in Africa approximately , years ago.
A guide to the best Religious Building/ Site/ Shrine sights in Bilbao and the Basque Country, as chosen by our travel experts.
The research focussing on the analysis of organic residues preserved in archaeological samples has opened the doors to knowledge about past customs and traditions relating to trade, food and even rituals of a cultural nature. In this respect, among the most common materials found on archaeological sites and excavations are ceramic vessels. The porous matrix of the ceramics means that they are ideal materials for preserving specific compounds known as biomarkers of certain foods and materials, such as animal or vegetable fats for hundreds or even thousands of years.
Basque fishermen used to sail across the Atlantic ocean to Newfoundland and Labrador Canada and once the whale had been caught, its valuable oil was extracted. This was put into wooden barrels and transported back to the Basque Country where it was sold in Spain and other locations in Europe. Before it was traded, the fat used to be stored in large earthenware vats on the docks of the Basque ports so that they were ready to be distributed.
To do this, 1 g of lipid content was extracted from the fragments in each ceramic sample and the extracts were analysed using chromatographic techniques, such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry GC-MS , and high resolution liquid chromatography using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry HPLC-ESI-QToF. To be able to properly identify and confirm the presence of whale oil, 4 fresh samples of blubber from various whale species were analysed.
Basque people , the free encyclopedia
It was erected during the 15th and 16th centuries on top of the old fortress of San Vicente, which defended the south-east corner of the city. The main altarpiece deserves special mention. It was finished in in churrigueresque baroque style, featuring the image of San Vicente. The tower was rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century in neo-byzantine style. Practical information – During summer, the tourism office organizes guided visits.
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Her form was particularly impressive at 67 and she looked confident with her super-toned limbs on show. She delivered a suitably memorably festival performance on the day Ageless: She showed impressive form when she arrived on stage barefoot and topless Covered up: She arrived on stage with a cape and mask but soon stripped down The s pop act seemed to leave her armpits unshaven as she raised her athletic arms to perform with passion.
She expressed her excitement for the performance on Facebook ahead of the event, saying: You better dress to impress me. The brunette was joined on stage by other similarly-clad dancers Grace was accompanied on stage at the fancy dress ball by similarly scantily clad dancers and after arriving on stage in a cape and mask, the brunette became increasingly more undressed as the performance went on.
Though rarely seen on stage these days, it’s been a summer of festivals for the starlet, who similarly took the stage at Hyde Park’s British Summer Time festival and even ParkLife. The ageless Pull Up To The Bumper singer has been taking her topless stage show all over the world, appearing in Sydney, Australia earlier this year.
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Since that time it has been an important commercial centre, mainly based around the port and its associated exports. In the 19th century, the industrial revolution led Bilbao to become one of the biggest and most noteworthy manufacturing centres in the whole of Spain. Ancient Origins Ancient burial sites which date back more than 6, years have been discovered in the region.
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The Basque Language Euskara is a pre-Indo European language and has thus existed for several thousands of years. Over the centuries, the territory of the Basque-speaking community has gradually changed. The Basque language is a linguistic and historical enigma. Its roots are unknown because it is not related to any other language spoken today. No theories have been confirmed linking it with other nearby languages. The first written words with Basque references were found in Basque-Aquitain and Pyrenean funeral stelae or headstones dating from the 1st century of Roman times.
The oldest conjugated sentences are from the 10th century. Based on one classification scheme, Euskara has eight regional dialects and 24 subdialects, thus calling for the need to standardize the language by creating what is known as euskara batua unified Euskara in This marked the beginning of the path to recovery for the Basque language, and brought about its gradual implantation in the education system, as well as active social support and political backing.
Euskara is the language of the Basques, a valuable part of Basque heritage and the singularly most unique part of Basque identity. The admirable continuity of Euskara over the centuries remains unexplained by historians. Preserved from generation to generation, it is now experiencing a significant recovery thanks to a general collective will.
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This explains the Roman pun at the expense of the Aquitanians ancestors of the Gascons: Beati Hispani quibus vivere bibere est, which translates as “Blessed are the Spaniards , for whom living is drinking. Roman period Several coins from the 1st and 2nd centuries BC found in the north of Spain bear the inscription barscunes written in the Iberian alphabet.
The place where they were minted is not certain but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones. In modern Basque, Basques call themselves euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- i. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers, and not all Basque speakers are Basques; foreigners who have learned Basque can also be called euskaldunak.
Therefore the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the nineteenth century to mean an ethnically Basque person whether Basque-speaking or not. These Basque words are all derived from euskara, the Basque name for the Basque language. Alfonso Irigoyen claimed that the word euskara comes from an ancient Basque verb enautsi “to say” cf. Thus euskara would literally mean “way of saying”, “way of speaking”.