Know all about The historic city of Taxila

The site includes numerous related buildings, fortifications, settlements and monasteries, and shows architectural influences for the length of its role as a Buddhist training center, between the 5th century BC through the 2nd century AD. The capital was conquered by several groups, including Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. As a result, Persian, Greek and Asian influences are visible in the ruins of the city. Taxila Museum is located at Texila, Punjab, Pakistan. Construction of Taxila museum started in , its foundation stone laid by Lord Chemsford, vicery of India in Construction was concluded in and the museum was opened for public by Sir Habibullah then the ministry for Education. Sir John Marshall who was going to be retired from the post of Director General of Archaeological survey of India in , could not complete its original plan.


Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century.

Taxila is the very ancient city and carries great historical significance. the Taxila Travel guide contains all such relevant information Study in Toronto Saudi Arabia On PM’s Request Grant $6 .

On the basis of the dating of the Bisotun q. It also has been suggested that the Persian penetration into the Indus region occurred in stages, starting from the north and moving southward Fussman, , p. This is inferred from the fact that Gandhara OPers. As to how long Achaemenid rule lasted, opinions vary—at least in regard to the northwest of the Indian subcontinent.

The hypothesis that the region had already become independent by the end of the reign of Darius I B. At the time of the arrival of the Macedonian army in India B. The Achaemenids listed their subject nations dahyu , including the eastern ones, in several inscriptions see, above, section ii. The sculptures express strongly the ideology of an empire that is encircled by a ring of peripheral peoples Calmeyer, ;


Its other close neighboring cities include Hassanabdal, khanpur and Wah. Wah Cantt and Taxila are twin cities. Taxila is among the seven tehsils of Rawalpindi district. It is a city spread in the periphery of the Potohar plateau of Punjab.

The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar Valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Gandhara; sometimes the Swat Valley (Sanskrit: Suvāstu) was also heart of Gandhara, however, was always the Peshawar kingdom was ruled from capitals at Kapisa (), Pushkalavati (), Taxila, Puruṣapura (Peshawar) and in its final days from.

Start the gallery Scroll to view the gallery Credit: Thomas Buttery This labyrinth of interconnecting alleyways and streets, fountains, souks and courtyards has remained much the same since the city’s rapid expansion during the Marinid dynasty in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Chris Griffiths Although dilapidated ruins of once-grand riad homes can be found around almost every corner, the Moroccan government has recently been investing more money into restoring the medina, which today is considered one of the best-preserved historical towns in the Arab-Muslim world.

A short walk around the medina reveals intricately carved Islamic calligraphy and mesmerising zellige mosaics — individually chiselled tiles placed in geometric patterns — that line the walls of mosques, Koranic schools and mausoleums. It is also the first degree-granting educational institution in the world. Located in the heart of the old city, the complex is composed of a mosque, university and library, and is connected to the labyrinth of interconnecting streets and alleyways on all four sides.

Chris Griffiths The story of how the institution came into existence is perhaps even more remarkable than its architecture. In the early to mid-9th Century, when Fez was first beginning to establish itself as a bustling metropolis, Fatima al-Fihri — a migrant from the city of Kairouan in modern day Tunisia — settled and married in Fez along with her sister Mariam. After their father passed away, the sisters decided to use the fortune they inherited to give back to their newfound community by creating the Al-Karaouine Mosque and University complex.


Twenty-third session of the Bureau – paragraph IV. The Committee, at its twenty-third session, requested the State Party to report on the urgent corrective measures taken to restore the demolished year old essential hydraulic works of the Shalamar Gardens and to redress the completed football stadium built on the archaeological remains of Bhir Mound, the most ancient citadel site dating between 6th BC — 2nd AD within Taxila. At the time of the preparation of this working document, no information had been transmitted to the Secretariat from the Government authorities.

Nov 24,  · The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. [Source: Wiki] Read more/5().

Jayapala was the last great king of this dynasty. His empire extended from west of Kabul to the river Sutlej. However, this expansion of Gandhara kingdom coincided with the rise of the powerful Ghaznavid Empire under Sabuktigin. Defeated twice by Sabuktigin and then by Mahmud of Ghazni in the Kabul valley, Jayapala committed suicide. Anandapala, a son of Jayapala, moved his capital near Nandana in the Salt Range.

In the last king of this dynasty, Trilocanapala, was assassinated by his own troops which spelled the end of Gandhara. Subsequently, some Shahi princes moved to Kashmir and became active in local politics. The city of in Afghanistan is said to have been named after Gandhara.

Hunza Explorers

The main ruins of Taxila are divided into three major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period. The oldest of these is Bhir Mound , which dates from the sixth century B. The second city of Taxila is located at Sirkap and was built by Greco-Bactrian kings in the second century B. The third and last city of Taxila is at Sirsukh and relates to the Kushan kings. In addition to the ruins of the city, a number of buddhist monasteries and stupas also belong to the Taxila area.

Some of the important ruins of this category include the ruins of the stupa at Dharmarajika , the monastery at Jaulian , the monastery at Mohra Muradu in addition to a number of stupas.

First Archaeology Exam 1. STUDY. PLAY. like Pitt-Rivers. He also devised his own technique of seriation or “sequence dating“- brings everything into a chronological order. SERIATION. Wheeler. This man held training schools in modern field methods, and excavated the important sites of Harappa, Taxila, Charsadda, and Arikamedu. He normally.

Alexander promoted a fusion of cultures and his successors endeavored to adopt the cultures and blend in to their conquered environments. So too did Demetrios I, a young king of Greek origin, establish the wealthy city of Sirkap, in present-day Pakistan where excavations reveal a rich fusion of Greek and Indian cultures. Whilst the Seleucid Empire to the west was conquered, to the north-east of the Mauryan Kingdom lay the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, — BC encompassing Bactria and Sogdiana north of present-day Afghanistan and on the border of Uzbekistan.

Euthydemus lost a battle to Antiochus and retreated to the fortified city of Bactra, where he successfully resisted a siege, until Antiochus finally decided to recognize the new ruler. Euthydemus was succeeded by his son, the young prince Demetrios 1 in BC and Antiochus sealed a peace treaty with Demetrios, which included offering his daughter to the young prince, as his wife.

By BC Brihadratha, the last King of the Mauryan Empire was assassinated during a military parade by his commander-in-chief of the guard, Pushyamitra Shunga, who usurped the throne and established the Shunga dynasty. Demetrios, recognizing that the Khyber Pass was unguarded after the fall of the Mauryan Empire, immediately mobilized his troops and by BC he had conquered present-day southern Afghanistan and north-western India and in so doing he became a Greek king who founded the Indo-Grecian Kingdom.

He ruled initially from the wealthy city of Taxila, in present-day Punjab, Pakistan situated just across the river from Sirkap.

Salman Rashid: St Thomas in Taxila

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Jan 10,  · GANDHARA AND BUDDHISM. Not to be confused with Gandahar, a fictional world. The name of the Gandhāris is attested in the Rigveda (RV ) and in ancient inscriptions dating back to Achaemenid Persia. The Gandharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhist centre of learning from the 5th century BC to the 2nd century.

It is an important archaeological site. Construction of Taxila museum started in , its foundation stone laid by Lord Chemsford, vicery of India in Construction was concluded in and the museum was opened for public by Sir Habibullah then the ministry for Education. Sir John Marshall who was going to be retired from the post of Director General of Archaeological survey of India in , could not complete its original plan.

The government of Pakistan constructed the northern gallery in There are objects displayed, including stone, stucco, terracotta, silver, gold, iron and semiprecious stones.

Project MUSE

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century.

Indo-Greeks built a new capital, Sirkap , on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city’s autonomous coinage. Kushan[ edit ] In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh.

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Although the term Kushan is known in ancient sources, it is often used to refer to a dynasty other than the one designated by modern historians. Chinese chronicles employed the term Yuezhi, and at least one Indian source Pargiter, , p. Even the term Kushan as it appears on coins—koshano in Bactrian —is absent on the coins of two kings of the dynasty, while it is employed liberally among their contemporaries, the Kushano-Sasanian, or Kushanshah, kings and the Kidarites.

In addition, many 3rd-century and later sources use the term to describe the region of Bactria. The cohesion of the group rests on establishing either that the coins were issued successively, in most cases from the same mints, or that the kings named are related to each other by epigraphic evidence. Today, modern constructs include thirteen kings who ruled from the mid-1st century until the late fourth, although exact details can vary cf.

In the late 19th century when Alexander Cunningham wrote the first account of Kushan coinage , he included only five kings: Some coins of Kujula and those of his son Wima Takto were classified instead as Saka Cunningham, , pl. The final kings are still absent in many accounts, because the attribution of their coinage and the identification of Shaka in a Gupta-period inscription were made only recently Cribb, , p. The coins issued under these kings are presented below in chronological order.

The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent, and epigraphic relations will be referred to where significant. Where possible, type numbers for this publication will be included in the description of coins. However, the volume is not complete: The works of Michael Mitchiner , are also often used as general references, particularly for the coinage before Wima Kadphises

Gandhara Civilization

Leben[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Chandragupta herrschte von ca. Sein Nachfolger war sein Sohn Bindusara. Ihm folgte wiederum, nach heutigem Forschungsstand im Jahr v.

dhamma musings Monday, February 23, know for certain about Asoka comes from his edicts and that all the “stuff” that had just been presented is legend dating from centuries after his time. Frazier and Appleton laughed awkwardly. As for Taxila university, .

Listening to all this I could hardly believe my ears that this was two academics talking, because most of what they said is completely nonsense. Frazier and Appleton laughed awkwardly. The reality is that we know almost nothing about Taxila other than what can be gleaned from brief mentions in ancient texts usually only the name numismatics, and archaeological findings during the 20th century.

Interestingly, the most detailed information we have about the city of Taxila come from Greek and Latin accounts of Alexander the Great’s visit written by Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Diodorus Siculus, etc, none of which mention a university. The Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang both visited Taxila but mention no university either, or even a tradition of learning. It usually says that they went at the age of 16, that they learned the three Vedas by heart e.

One Jataka mentions study of the eighteen branches of knowledge Ja. No other details at all. Although the Jatakas in their present form post-date the suttas and vinaya, many of the stories they tell are pre-Buddhist. They look back to a distant, partly mythological past. It would seem therefore that in the centuries before Buddhism Taxila was a centre for Brahmanical learning. In keeping of what we know of the Vedic education, young Brahmin students would probably have lived in the gurus home where they would be taught the Vedas, Vedic rituals and associated knowledge; prosody, grammar legends, perhaps astrology, etc.


The fortress was built during the reign of the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri between and in order to help subdue the rebellious tribes of the Potohar region of northern Punjab that were loyal to the Mughal crown. The fort is one of the largest and most formidable in the subcontinent. Rohtas Fort was never stormed by force, and has survived remarkably intact.

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Evidence of Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15, years old. More recent excavations point to 30, years before present. This culture survived till BC. Its evidence has been discovered in the hilly regions of Swat and Dir, and even at Taxila. It is said that Lord Rama consolidated the rule of the Kosala Kingdom over the whole of the Indian peninsula.

His brothers and sons ruled most of the Janapadas 16 states at that time. The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century. That specific place is still called Prang from Prayaga and considered sacred and where local people still bring their dead for burial.

Most are written on birch bark and were found in labeled clay pots. Kharosthi script died out about the 4th century. Stucco as well as stone was widely used by sculptors in Gandhara for the decoration of monastic and cult buildings.

Kashmir, Taxila, Benares