In the earlier portions of the Avesta there is no trace of mathematical astronomy which in any case, would be inappropriate in such a context and only a few hints at some sort of observational astronomy involving the sun, the moon, and certain fixed stars. The earliest mathematical astronomy that developed in territory under Iranian control was that which originated in Mesopotamia, was improved during the Achaemenid period, and culminated in the Babylonian solar, lunar, and planetary theories of the Seleucid and Parthian periods. That some of this Babylonian astronomy and the astral omen literature that was associated with it was adopted by scholars in Iran itself is implied by its transmission to India in the late fifth or early fourth century B. We have no direct evidence, however, that would clarify the nature of Iranian astronomy during the Achaemenid period. In the Parthian period, however, we do find evidence from eastern Iran that Babylonian mathematical astronomy and astral omens continued to be studied and that Indian concepts had begun to be influential. The evidence for the second hypothesis is found in the Buddhist Sanskrit texts of which manuscripts were preserved in Central Asia or which were translated into Chinese or into Central Asian languages in the second century A.
Ancient coins of Egypt
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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Ancient Greek: Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Φιλοπάτωρ, translit. Kleopátrā Philopátōr; 69 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. She was also a diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of.
When Themistocles was exiled from Athens he retired to Magnesia, which was then assigned to him by the king of Persia. To the period of his rule the following highly interesting coin belongs. AR Attic Didrachm, grs. Three specimens of these didrachms are known, all from different dies. The one in the British Museum is plated,—a fact which has been cited as confirming the reputation for trickery with which the name of Themistocles was associated; and a plated drachm is also said to exist in a private collection at Aidin.
These plated coins were, however, perhaps not issued officially see R. Weil in Corolla Num. For the space of at least a century after this no coins of Magnesia are known, but after the middle of the fourth century the silver coinage becomes plentiful. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, Berlin, , pp.
AR Didrachm, grs. AR Drachm, 55 grs. Regal tetradrachms of Lysimachus. Gold Philippi with Maeander symbol and monograms B. Head of Artemis with bow and quiver at shoulder Fig.
Awesome silver dagger or sword chape mount. Great design comprised of four openwork crosses around the perimeter. Nice surfaces, heavy earthen deposits. Great lead cloth seal depicting a sword!
Ancient Egypt, civilization in northeastern Africa that dates from the 4th millennium many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets.
The father was a wealthy copper trader who had become a respected citizen of that city. Nicolaus’s father died between and After that, his maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger — , a church canon who would later become Prince-Bishop governor of the Archbishopric of Warmia , took young Nicolaus under his protection and saw to his education and future career.
Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. His brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork Frauenburg. His sister Barbara named after her mother became a Benedictine nun. His sister Katharina married Barthel Gertner, a businessman and city councilor. Afterward, he followed the academic custom of his time and adopted a Latinized version of his name. In , Johann Gottfried Herder introduced the spelling Nikolaus Kopernikus, which replaced each c with k and changed pp to p.
This spelling became popular in German writings, although scholars argued for Coppernicus. Astronomy soon fascinated him, and he began collecting a large library on the subject. Copernicus’s library would later be carried off as war booty by the Swedes during “the Deluge” and is now at the Uppsala University Library. Copernicus’s uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger , financed his education and hoped that Copernicus too would become a bishop.
Reference books about ancient coins
Ptolemy II Sidon Double Cornucopia – Series 3 This denomination series consists of at least 5 coins with double cornucopiae as the prominent feature of the reverse that distinguishes these from the parallel Alexandria series. Sizes and weights shown here are the ‘nominal ideal’ for the types. Actual sizes and weights may vary somewhat due to the striking and manufacturing technology at the time.
The idea here is to present the coins as a coherent series. You may also view these same coins with detailed information about each one elsewhere on the PtolemAE Project web site. Uncatalogued type – uncertain if it belongs to this series or a later issue of Ptolemy IV or V.
Syria: BC – BC Mostly part of the Egyptian Empire. BC – BC Local kingdoms (Phoenicians, Canaanites, etc.).
History of the collection The original collection of the British Museum included antiquities, coins and medals, natural history specimens and a large library collection. Founding collection The British Museum’s founding collection was the 71, books, antiquities and natural specimens bequeathed to the nation by Sir Hans Sloane in Two other collections were also brought under the care of the early Museum: The Cottonian Library of books and manuscripts The Harleian collection of manuscripts The original collection was divided into three: Printed Books including prints ; Manuscripts including medals ; Natural and Artificial Productions everything else.
In , the first major collection of classical antiquities was added to the Museum when the Greek vase collection belonging to Sir William Hamilton was acquired.
Ptolemaic Bronze Denomination Series
Element Cr , Atomic No. A hard white metal which is unsuitable for coinage, but which has been used to plate steel coins. An example of such use is the Canadian 5c pieces of and , which were nickel-plated steel with a surface plating of chromium to add wear resistance.
With regard to the attribution of this primitive stater see infra, under Lydia, and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Mus., Excavations at Ephesus, , pp. 74 ff.. There are also a number of silver coins of archaic times of various standards of weight.
Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population. Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubia , in which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land.
West of the Nile was the arid Sahara , broken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals. The eastern desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, was more important, for it supported a small nomadic population and desert game, contained numerous mineral deposits, including gold, and was the route to the Red Sea. To the northeast was the Isthmus of Suez. From the late 2nd millennium bce onward, numerous attacks were made by land and sea along the eastern Mediterranean coast.
At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Sea , but from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos present-day Jbail. Egypt needed few imports to maintain basic standards of living, but good timber was essential and not available within the country, so it usually was obtained from Lebanon.
Minerals such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Agriculture centred on the cultivation of cereal crops, chiefly emmer wheat Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare. The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop. This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bce, the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East.
As the river deposited alluvial silt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly.
Egypt Herodotus relates iv. If the story be true, it probably refers to ordinary Persian sigloi. No coins have come down to us which can be identified as those of Aryandes. Besides, there is positive evidence to suggest that throughout the period of Persian dominion coined money as such was not current in Egypt at all. Silver was a common medium of exchange; but, when it passed from hand to hand, its precise value was always determined by weighing.
Egypt Herodotus relates (iv. ) that Aryandes, who had been appointed satrap of Egypt by Cambyses, mortally offended Darius, son of Hystaspes, by issuing silver money which rivalled in purity the gold darics of the great king himself.
He distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion , and for rescuing the body of Archelaos , the husband of Berenice IV, after he was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial. Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris Right: The cartouches of Cleopatra and Caesarion on a limestone stele of the High Priest of Ptah in Egypt, dated to the Ptolemaic period , and located in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology , London Ptolemy XII died sometime before 22 March 51 BC, when Cleopatra, in her first act as queen, began her voyage to Hermonthis , near Thebes , to install a new sacred Buchis bull, worshiped as an intermediary for the god Montu in the Ancient Egyptian religion.
These included famine caused by drought and a low level of the annual flooding of the Nile , and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt.
Greek Gold Coins
Svoronos knew only the single BMC example. Nice dark glossy green patina. Much better than photo. Only a few examples known. Very rare and missing from most collections.
There was a fascinating clue found alongside the tomb: an alabaster head. Archaeologists believe the sculpture likely belonged to the owner of the tomb.
The north was inherited by the Tanite 21st dynasty —c. Indeed, the dating of documents, even at Thebes , was in terms of the Tanite reigns, and apparently there were close family ties between the kings and the Thebans. Some members of both the Theban priestly and the Tanite royal lines had Libyan names. With the coming of the new dynasty, and possibly a little earlier, the Meshwesh Libyan military elite, which had been settled mainly in the north by Ramses III , penetrated the ruling group, although it did not become dominant until the 22nd dynasty.
Dockets pertaining to the reburial of these mummies contain important chronological data from the 21st dynasty. Photograph by Lisa O’Hara. This was a period when statuary was usurped and the material of earlier periods was reused. Much of the remains from Tanis consists of material transported from other sites, notably from Pi Ramesse. Although political institutions were different from those of the New Kingdom, the Libyans were culturally Egyptian, retaining only their group identity, names, and perhaps a military ethos.
The oracle proffered good wishes not only for Sheshonk and his family but, significantly, also for his army.